Home>Instruments>Piano>How To Make A Piano

How To Make A Piano How To Make A Piano


How To Make A Piano

Written by: Blanche Tunstall

Learn how to make a piano from scratch with step-by-step instructions. Discover the tools and materials needed for building a piano at home.

(Many of the links in this article redirect to a specific reviewed product. Your purchase of these products through affiliate links helps to generate commission for AudioLover.com, at no extra cost. Learn more)

Table of Contents


Building a piano from scratch is a remarkable endeavor that combines craftsmanship, engineering, and musical artistry. The process of creating a piano involves a harmonious fusion of materials, precision, and patience. Whether you are a seasoned artisan or an adventurous DIY enthusiast, embarking on the journey to construct a piano can be an immensely rewarding experience.

Crafting a piano from the ground up provides a profound understanding of the instrument's inner workings, allowing for a deeper connection with the music produced. As you embark on this extraordinary project, you will delve into the intricate mechanisms that produce the enchanting melodies we cherish. From the resonant soundboard to the meticulously crafted keys, every component of the piano plays a pivotal role in shaping its timeless harmonies.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the step-by-step process of constructing a piano, from sourcing the finest materials to the final tuning. Each stage of the construction will unravel the complexities and artistry behind this iconic instrument. So, roll up your sleeves, unleash your creativity, and let's embark on this extraordinary journey to create a masterpiece of music and craftsmanship – your very own piano.


Materials Needed

Before delving into the construction process, it’s essential to gather all the necessary materials and tools. Building a piano requires a diverse array of components, ranging from fine woods to specialized piano strings. Here’s a comprehensive list of materials and tools you’ll need to embark on this extraordinary project:

  • Hardwood for the frame, such as maple, beech, or oak
  • High-quality spruce for the soundboard
  • Piano wire for the strings
  • Felt for the hammers
  • Ivory or synthetic materials for the keys
  • Copper-wound bass strings
  • Steel tuning pins
  • Piano action components, including the hammer shanks and flanges
  • Wood glue and specialized piano adhesives
  • Fine sandpaper and wood finish for the aesthetic appeal
  • Piano tuning lever and mutes
  • Specialized piano-making tools, such as voicing needles and regulation gauges

Additionally, you’ll need a well-equipped workshop with essential woodworking tools, including saws, chisels, planes, clamps, and measuring instruments. The construction of a piano demands meticulous precision, so having access to high-quality tools is paramount to achieving exceptional results.

Gathering these materials and tools is the initial step in embarking on the remarkable journey of constructing a piano. Each component plays a crucial role in shaping the instrument’s tonal quality, durability, and aesthetic appeal. With these materials at your disposal, you’re poised to commence the awe-inspiring process of bringing a piano to life.


Building the Frame

The foundation of a piano lies within its sturdy frame, which provides structural support and resonance. Crafting the frame demands precision and expertise in woodworking. To commence this pivotal stage, select high-quality hardwood such as maple, beech, or oak. These woods possess the strength and resilience required to form the robust skeleton of the piano.

Begin by meticulously cutting and shaping the wood to form the rim, also known as the “bent side.” This crucial element determines the piano’s shape and provides a solid structure for the soundboard and other components. The rim is meticulously crafted to exact specifications, ensuring a seamless fit for the internal components.

Next, the piano’s back is meticulously constructed, providing additional support and contributing to the instrument’s resonance. The back, often made from the same hardwood as the rim, undergoes precise shaping and assembly to seamlessly integrate with the rim and support the soundboard.

Once the rim and back are in place, the piano’s bracing is meticulously installed to fortify the frame and ensure structural integrity. The bracing, crafted from the same durable hardwood, plays a crucial role in maintaining the frame’s stability and preventing warping or distortion over time.

Throughout the construction of the frame, meticulous attention to detail is paramount. Each joint, curve, and angle is meticulously crafted to exacting standards, ensuring the frame’s durability and resonance. The frame serves as the backbone of the piano, providing the foundation upon which the instrument’s captivating melodies will resonate.

Building the frame is a labor-intensive yet profoundly rewarding endeavor. As the robust structure takes shape, the essence of the piano begins to emerge, laying the groundwork for the intricate components that will bring the instrument to life.


Adding the Keys

The keys of a piano are not only the interface through which the pianist communicates with the instrument but also intricate components that directly influence the sound and playability. Crafting and installing the keys require meticulous precision and a deep understanding of piano mechanics.

To begin, high-quality wood, such as spruce or basswood, is carefully selected for crafting the keys. The wood is intricately shaped and notched to accommodate the key action components, including the keybed, keyframe, and key levers. Each key is meticulously crafted to precise dimensions, ensuring uniformity and optimal playability.

After the keys are meticulously shaped, the next step involves installing the key action components. The keybed, a crucial element where the keys rest, is meticulously crafted to provide a stable foundation for the keys. The keyframe, which supports the front of the keys, is intricately assembled to ensure seamless movement and alignment.

Once the keybed and keyframe are in place, the key levers and key bushings are meticulously installed. The key levers transmit the pianist’s touch to the action mechanism, dictating the force and speed at which the hammers strike the strings. The key bushings, often made of high-quality felt, ensure smooth and precise key movement.

As the keys and key action components come together, meticulous regulation and adjustment are essential to ensure uniform touch and responsiveness across all keys. This process involves fine-tuning the key dip, key height, and key leveling to achieve optimal playability and responsiveness.

With the keys meticulously installed and regulated, the piano begins to take on its characteristic appearance and functionality. The keys serve as the gateway to the instrument’s soul, inviting pianists to unleash captivating melodies and explore the boundless realms of musical expression.


Installing the Strings

The installation of strings in a piano is a meticulous and intricate process that contributes significantly to the instrument’s tonal quality and resonance. Crafting the strings and installing them with precision is essential to achieving the rich, vibrant sound that defines a well-crafted piano.

To commence the installation, high-quality piano wire is meticulously selected based on the specific requirements for each string. The wire is meticulously measured, cut, and delicately coiled to form the treble, tenor, and bass strings, each tailored to produce the distinct range of tones within the piano’s compass.

As the strings are installed, meticulous attention is given to the tension and alignment of each string. The treble strings, made of high-tensile steel, are delicately threaded through the agraffes and meticulously secured to the hitch pins. The tenor and bass strings, crafted from copper-wound steel, are meticulously coiled and affixed to the hitch pins with unwavering precision.

Once the strings are in place, the delicate process of stringing and scaling begins. This involves meticulously adjusting the speaking length and diameter of each string to achieve the optimal tension and tonal balance across the piano’s range. The scaling process is a harmonious fusion of art and science, ensuring that each note resonates with clarity and richness.

Throughout the installation of the strings, a keen ear and a deep understanding of acoustics are essential. Meticulous tuning and voicing of the strings are imperative to ensure that the piano produces a harmonious blend of tones, from the sparkling highs of the treble to the resonant depths of the bass.

As the strings are meticulously installed and scaled, the piano begins to embody the soulful resonance that captivates musicians and audiences alike. The installation of strings is a testament to the meticulous craftsmanship and artistry that underpins the creation of this iconic instrument.


Attaching the Pedals

The pedals of a piano are integral to shaping the instrument’s expressive capabilities, offering nuanced control over the resonance and dynamics of the music. Attaching the pedals is a pivotal stage in the construction process, requiring meticulous precision and a deep understanding of the interplay between mechanics and musical expression.

Typically, a piano features three pedals: the soft pedal (una corda), the sostenuto pedal, and the sustaining pedal. Each pedal serves a distinct purpose in altering the instrument’s sound, providing pianists with a range of tonal and dynamic possibilities.

To commence the installation of the pedals, the intricate pedal mechanism is meticulously assembled and affixed to the piano’s frame. The mechanism, often crafted from durable metal components, is delicately aligned to ensure smooth and responsive pedal action.

The soft pedal, also known as the una corda pedal, is meticulously installed to offer pianists the option of softening the sound by shifting the hammers’ position in relation to the strings. This delicate mechanism allows for subtle tonal variations, enriching the piano’s expressive palette.

The sostenuto pedal, a feature found in grand pianos, provides pianists with the ability to sustain specific notes while allowing others to decay naturally. This intricate mechanism, meticulously installed and regulated, grants pianists unparalleled control over the sustained resonance of individual notes.

Finally, the sustaining pedal, often referred to as the damper pedal, is meticulously affixed to the piano. This pedal, when engaged, lifts all the dampers from the strings, allowing for a full and resonant sound that characterizes the piano’s expressive power.

Attaching the pedals is a harmonious fusion of mechanical precision and musical artistry. As the pedals are meticulously installed, the piano begins to embody its full expressive potential, offering pianists a boundless realm of tonal possibilities and dynamic control.


Tuning the Piano

Tuning a piano is a meticulous and artful process that ensures the instrument produces harmonious and resonant tones across its entire range. The tuning of a piano involves adjusting the tension of each string to achieve precise pitches, creating a symphony of perfectly aligned notes that captivate the ears and hearts of listeners.

To commence the tuning process, a skilled piano tuner carefully adjusts the tension of each string using a specialized tuning lever. The tuner’s keen ear and acute sense of pitch guide the delicate adjustments, ensuring that each string resonates at the precise frequency required for perfect harmony.

The tuning of a piano typically follows the equal temperament system, which divides the octave into twelve equal semitones. This meticulous system of tuning allows for seamless modulation between keys, ensuring that the piano can effortlessly traverse the diverse tonal landscapes of musical compositions.

Throughout the tuning process, the tuner meticulously progresses through the piano’s entire range, delicately adjusting the tension of each string to achieve optimal pitch and harmonic alignment. This meticulous attention to detail ensures that every note on the piano sings with clarity and resonance.

After the initial tuning, the piano undergoes a process of fine-tuning and voicing, where the tonal quality and character of each note are meticulously refined. This involves shaping the hammers and adjusting their voicing to achieve a balanced and expressive tonal palette across the instrument.

As the final adjustments are made, the piano’s rich and vibrant voice emerges, resonating with a symphonic blend of tones that embody the essence of musical artistry. The meticulously tuned piano stands as a testament to the harmonious fusion of craftsmanship and musical expression.



Embarking on the extraordinary journey of constructing a piano is a testament to the profound artistry and craftsmanship that underpins this iconic instrument. From meticulously shaping the frame to tuning each string with precision, every stage of the piano’s creation embodies a harmonious fusion of engineering, artistry, and musical expression.

As the piano takes shape, it becomes more than a mere instrument; it becomes a conduit for boundless musical expression, a testament to human creativity and ingenuity. Crafting a piano from scratch is a labor of love, demanding unwavering dedication and a deep understanding of the instrument’s inner workings.

Through the process of constructing a piano, artisans and enthusiasts alike gain a profound appreciation for the instrument’s complexity and beauty. The resonance of the strings, the responsiveness of the keys, and the expressive power of the pedals all come together to create an instrument that transcends its physical form, inviting musicians to unleash their creativity and emotions.

As the final notes are meticulously tuned and the last components are meticulously installed, the piano emerges as a masterpiece of music and craftsmanship. It stands as a testament to the timeless artistry that has captivated audiences for centuries, inviting pianists to embark on a journey of musical discovery and expression.

Ultimately, the construction of a piano is a transformative experience, offering a profound understanding of the instrument’s soul and inviting individuals to become part of a legacy that spans generations. Whether as a master craftsman or an impassioned enthusiast, the journey of creating a piano is a symphony of dedication, creativity, and unwavering devotion to the art of music.

Related Post